Choose the Right Leadership Approach

  • Share
  • Read Later

When you manage a team of people, adapt your leadership style to meet each person’s needs. In general there are four types of approaches: directing, coaching, supporting, and delegating. Depending on the level of your employee’s competence and commitment, choose which will work best. When your direct report is learning new skills, be directive. Define tasks clearly and check progress to make sure he’s not faltering. Use periodic coaching when your employee is learning new skills but needs the freedom to make mistakes and learn from them. Be supportive, encouraging highly competent employees who lack confidence. With employees who are both highly motivated and experienced, delegate tasks. In all cases, your responsibility is to find the balance between hand-holding and empowering.

Adapted from the Harvard ManageMentor Online Module: Leading and Motivating.

Visit Harvard Business Review’s Management Tip homepage

Purchase the HBR Management Tips book

Firozali A.Mulla
Firozali A.Mulla

Research shows that a great leader exudes

charisma, ensures inspirational and intellectual stimulation, pays individual

attention to the people below him and does not manage by exception or adopt a

laissez-faire leadership. Close your eyes and recall a time when you worked with a leader you rank

among the best in your life. The chances are that you will think of them as

leaders because they had charisma, inspirational and intellectual stimulation,

individualised consideration, contingent rewards, and did not manage by exception or adopt a

laissez-faire leadership. The

work of Bernard M Bass and Bruce J Avolio of the Centre for Leadership Studies at the School of Management in State University

of New York Birmingham deserves special mention. The duo's seminal model on

leadership factors-enlisted in their work Improving Organizational

Effectiveness Through Transformational Leadership-has since been used by many

researchers to either drill deeper or aim for a higher abstraction. This article summarises the

evidence of a new set of studies done on the Multifactor Leadership

Questionnaire that Bass and Avolio created to measure the six factors that help

describe a person's leadership style. Some key points, the definitions of the components

of The Full Range Leadership Model the authors described are important. The

definitions are: Charisma Provides followers with a clear

sense of purpose that is energising, role model for ethical conduct and builds

identification with the leader and his/her articulated views Intellectual stimulation Gets followers to question the

tried and tested ways of solving problems and encourages them to question the

methods they use to improve upon them Individual attention 

Focus on understanding the individualised needs

of the followers and works continuously to get them to develop to their full

potential Contingent reward Clarifies what is expected from

followers and what they will get if they meet expected levels of performance Active management Focus on monitoring task

execution for any problems Avoidant

leadership Tends

to react only after problems have become serious to take corrective action and

often avoids making any decision at all. This has some sub factors. The authors

found that the best leaders seemed to have a mix of both transactional and

transformational leadership. Languages, like our bodies, are in a perpetual flux, and stand in need

of recruits to supply those words that are continually falling through disuse.

-Cornelius Conway Felton, educator (1807-1862) that

may arise and correcting those problems to maintain current performance levels  I thank you Firozali A.Mulla DBA

Firozali A.Mulla
Firozali A.Mulla

Hong Kong shares jumped on Monday, tracking an

Asia-wide rally following better-than-expected U.S. jobs data on Friday that

spurred gains for riskier assets, propelling the Index above a technical level it

has struggled with since mid-May. Shares

of HSBC Holdings Plc, Europe's largest bank, rose 3.3

percent to its highest since July 17. Part of the strength was due to short

covering after short-selling interest averaged 16 percent of total turnover

last week, dealers said. At

midday, the Hang Seng Index was up 2 percent to 20,069.4, its highest point

since May 14. At that level, the index topped its 200-day moving average, now

at 19,689.5 and a chart level it has found hard to break above for almost three

months. Mainland Chinese

markets rose, but by a modest 0.5 percent at midday, with the CSI300 Index of

the biggestShanghai and Shenzhen listings up 0.5 percent and the

Shanghai Composite Index up 0.4 percent. But

gains in Hong Kong and China came in weak turnover, belying a lack of

conviction ahead of a slew of interim corporate earnings throughout August and

China's July economic data, which will start to come out on Thursday. "Buying is still very

short term and a lot of it is rotational," said Jackson Wong, Tanrich

Securities' vice-president for equity sales. "I'm

actually advising clients to sell into the rally today because we are still

very vulnerable to data from U.S. and China and developments in Europe,"

Wong added. On Monday, the

favourable U.S. jobs data lifted shares of Li amp; Fung, which manages supply

chains for U.S. retailers such as Wal-Mart Stores Inc and Target Corp, by 3.7 percent. On

Friday, Li amp; Fung fell 2.3 percent after data on Thursday showed U.S.

manufacturers suffered an unexpected drop in June orders. Li amp; Fung, which is

expected to post interim earnings on Thursday, is now up 6.2 percent in 2012,

compared with the Hang Seng Index's 8.9 percent gain. The stock is trading at

16.7 times forward 12-months earnings, a 23 percent discount to its historic

median. Four out of 20

analysts have downgraded their earnings estimates for Li amp; Fung by an

average of 2.9 percent in the last 30 days, according to StarMine. VANKE LEADS CHINA PROPERTY DOWN Chinese property counters were

weaker on Monday after Shenzhen-listed China Vanke posted a 14 percent increase in July sales from

a year earlier. For some, the mild rebound reignited fears that China might put

more curbs on the sector. Shares

of China's largest developer by sales slipped 0.9 percent at midday, plumbing

four-month lows, but were still up more than 15 percent year to date, compared

with the 0.8 percent gain for the CSI300. Vanke

is expected to post first-half earnings on Wednesday. But these are likely to

be overshadowed by China's maintenance of policy curbs on the sector at the

same time it is easing other parts of the economy to combat slowing growth. On Sunday, China's central bank

pledged to intensify its monetary policy fine-tuning in the second half and to

improve credit policy to bolster the real economy, echoing earlier government

commitments amid an economic slowdown. I

thank you Firozali A.Mulla DBA

Firozali A.Mulla
Firozali A.Mulla


,banks banks the three banks employed more than a dozen

traders who sought to influence rates in dollar, euro or yen rates. Some of the

traders who are being probed have worked for several banks under scrutiny,

raising the possibility that the rate fixing became more ingrained as traders

changed jobs. The

documents reviewed by Reuters in analyzing the traders' involvement included

court filings by Canadian regulators who have been investigating potential

antitrust issues; settlement documents with Barclays filed by the US department

of justice and the US commodity futures trading commission in Washington and by

the financial services

authority in the UK; and a

private employment lawsuit filed by a former RBS trader in Singapore's high court. The scandal, which began to

come to light in 2008, has become a time bomb for regulators and a big focus

for politicians on both sides of the Atlantic. At issue is the manipulation

between at least 2005 and 2009 of rates that are used to determine the cost of

trillions of dollars of borrowings, including everything from home loans to

credit card rates. One

former Barclays employee under scrutiny, Reuters has learned, is Jay V

Merchant, according to people familiar with the situation. Merchant, who

oversaw the US dollar swaps trading desk at Barclays in New York, worked for

the bank from March 2006 to October 2009, according to employment records

maintained by the US financial industry regulatory authority (FINRA). Merchant currently holds a

similar position at UBS, where he works out of the Swiss bank's offices in

Stamford, Connecticut, according to FINRA. He did not return requests for

comment. People familiar

with the investigation said authorities are looking at whether some individuals

on Merchant's trading desk tried to influence the rate on Libor by

communicating with other traders in London to get a higher return on certain

swaps the desk was trading. His specific role is unclear. The department of justice

declined to comment. Merchant's

attorney, John Kenney of Hoguet Newman Regal amp; Kenney, did not respond to

requests seeking comment. A

UBS spokeswoman said that the bank has "no reason to believe Mr Merchant

has engaged in any improper conduct at UBS." The spokeswoman, who noted

that Merchant is on a two-week vacation, declined to comment on the broader

investigation. Barclays

declined to comment. In a statement, an RBS spokeswoman said the bank is

cooperating with the investigation. Spread from Barclays Earlier

this week, Reuters reported that federal prosecutors in Washington have begun

reaching out to lawyers for some of the individuals under scrutiny as they get

closer to bringing possible criminal charges. The

dollar and euro rate-rigging appears to have begun in earnest in early 2005 in

the dollar market, according to the documents reviewed by Reuters. By August of

that year, Barclays traders were reaching out to traders at other big global

banks to manipulate their rates to make them favourable to Barclays' trading

positions. Soon, the

trading had crossed to the euro rate markets, according to the settlement documents filed in the Barclays investigation. And by

2007, traders at RBS and UBS were seeking to influence the yen rate market,

according to documents filed in 2011 in Singapore's high court and in Canada's

Ontario superior court. Traders

at Barclays are believed to have participated in manipulating the rate for the

dollar and the rate for the euro known as Euribor, according to documents filed

in the Barclays settlement last month. RBS

and UBS traders are a focus of the global investigation because of their

alleged involvement in seeking to influence yen-denominated rates. Two RBS traders in London,

Brent Davies and Will Hall, are alleged to have agreed to help a trader at UBS,

Thomas Hayes, to manipulate yen Libor, according to court documents filed by

the Canadian competition bureau. UBS

is cooperating with Canadian and US authorities, according to people familiar

with the situation. Hayes

worked at UBS from 2006 to 2009. He later moved to Citigroup where

he remained until 2010, after which he left the bank. Hayes, Davies and Hall

could not be reached for comment. The

documents reveal that Hayes also contacted traders at other banks in London to

get them to manipulate yen rates. They include Peter O'Leary at HSBC Holdings

Plc, Guillaume Adolph at Deutsche, and Paul Glands at JPMorgan. A second UBS

employee sought to get a Citigroup trader, who formerly had worked at UBS, to

influence rates. 

None of these

traders could be reached for comment Condoned In

addition, a former trader at RBS, Tan Chi Min, said in a wrongful termination

lawsuit filed in the Singapore High Court in 2011 that he was forced out for

"improperly seeking to influence" the setting of Libor. Tan, who ran

a trading desk at RBS, said in the suit that improper rate-rigging was known by

some at the bank and condoned. 

Tan denied trying to manipulate Libor, and alleged

in the 2011 court filing, and one in March this year, that about a half dozen

other RBS traders openly tried to request specific rates. Tan's attorney, N Sreenivasan,

declined to comment because the court case is ongoing. Beyond traders at the three

European banks, authorities are still probing the role of others. For example, traders at

JPMorgan Chase amp; Co also interacted with some of the traders under scrutiny

who worked for Barclays and RBS, according to a person familiar with the situation and

court documents filed in Singapore. Similarly, Deutsche Bank AG

also had several employees whose trading is under scrutiny by authorities,

according to people familiar with the situation and court documents filed in

Canada. I thank you Firozali

A.Mulla DBA